stories of immigrants pre 1900

Stories of individual world immigrants from the public record  –  scroll  below

wallaby track

Left: “A CELESTIAL’S HOME, Sth Mt Cameron, North East Tasmania. (Abra photo)”
Right:  “ON THE WALLABY TRACK, DARBY AND JOAN. A picture recently taken in Launceston.(Abra, Photo.)” The Weekly Courier, February 18, 1905.

Who are these people ? Do they have descendants ?

Many thanks to Carol Brill for sharing this photo/find from: http://catalogue.statelibrary.tas.gov.au/item/?q=Weekly%20Courier&avail=Online&i=3&id=582993

MARY PATCHES of LAUNCESTON, Tasmania

Mary ASSID, living in Launceston in this image, subsequently in Hobart, Tasmania

The woman photographed above, caption:  Mary Patches of Launceston Tasmania is, it seems likely, the same woman: “Wealthy old Patches/Mary Assid” the subject of the  (very) 1925 article reprinted below.

Image: Archives of Tasmania Reference: PH30/1/1543: http://portal.archives.tas.gov.au/menu.aspx?detail=1&type=i&id=2355

“Wealthy Old Patches” The Daily Telegraph, 17 August 1925, page 5

The case of the aged Syrian woman Mary Assid is related in detail in this newspaper report. After eking out a living by hawking in the streets of Launceston, she became an inmate of the Invalid Depot in New Town, Hobart. The woman was always an object of interest because of her tattered and patchwork garments. She was looked upon with a certain pity, folk believing her to be poor and friendless. But upon her admission to the Hobart home she was found to be a comparatively rich woman. When she was admitted one of the nurses was desirous of the speedy disposal of the old woman’s tattered garments. Fortunately this was not done, because on a search of her clothing £56 4s 3d – all in small coins – was found concealed in a pocket.

“Money – don’t talk to me about money!” exclaimed the old woman. “I don’t want to hear about money” is the attitude she adopted when questioned in regard to her unsuspected hoard. Apart from the money found in her pocket, Mr C F Seager, the Administrator of Charitable Grants, discovered that Mary Assid had a Savings Bank account which had not been touched for ten years. With two fixed deposits, the interest which had accumulated, and the cash in hand, the old lady had a total of £4195 14s 9d. She was happy in the home, and it was taken for granted that while she remained there she would be a paying guest. It appeared that she had no relatives in Australia, but it was believed that she had two daughters in Syria.

Above found at: http://www.launcestonhistory.org.au/feb09news.htm

Launceston Historical Society Inc
Newsletter No 113
February 2009
ISSN 1036-7950
PO BOX 1296 LAUNCESTON TAS 7250
“Bringing together people with an interest in history”

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Circular Head Pioneers – Charles, Agnes and Patience O’Connor

by John Davies

CIRCULAR HEAD HISTORY JOURNAL

VOL 3 NO 3 JULY 1991

Pages 24 – 29

One of the early settlers in Circular Head was Charles O’Connor, many of whose descendants still live in the district. His early life is somewhat of a mystery, but some facts can be established. According to family tradition, Charles’s father came from Ireland and travelled to India after he had been in some sort of trouble with the Catholic Church. In India he married, or at least had a relationship with an Indian girl and Charles was born in Agra in 1817 (1.)

A lengthy newspaper obituary gives a flowery but interesting picture of Charles’s life. He had been born at Agra in India in 1818, but was early left an orphan, so at the age of eleven accompanied his uncle, Captain Flinders MacDonald, to Van Diemen’s Land. This uncle was a retired artillery officer, formerly in the service of the Honourable East India Company. The party of immigrants arrived in Hobart in 1829, hoping to find more favourable climatic conditions. Unfortunately, death claimed Flinders within a year of his arrival, and his family subsequently returned to India (2).

However, young Charlie had taken a fancy to the new land, and was left with friends to carve out his own future. He developed a predilection for bush life, attracted the attention of Governor Arthur, and served as a guide in many exploring expeditions. For these services he received a grant of land in the Richmond district, known as “Black Charlie’s Opening” from his swarthy complexion. There he battled the usual trials of bush life, but his modest habitation was frequently looted in his absence by the many bands of bushrangers infesting the country. Worse still, when his home was plundered in his presence, he was forced to carry the swag to a place of safety, and threatened with diabolical vengeance if he informed the authorities. After an unwelcome two-day visit from the notorious bushranger Brady, Charlie decided to move to the Circular Head district in 1844. Even here, at a later date, he was bailed up by the bushrangers Dalton and Kelly and forced to guide them towards Woolnorth (3.)

The official records cast doubt on some of these stories. The Tasmanian Archives state that no arrival date can be established for Charles O’Connor or Capt. Flinders MacDonald. They may have arrived first in NSW. There is no evidence of Charles acting as a guide to explorers, and, given that he was only 18 years old when Governor Arthur returned to England, the Principal Archivist is sceptical. Free land grants ceased in 1830, and it is most unlikely that an eleven year old boy would have acquired a land grant in the early developed area of Richmond. “Black Charlie’s Opening” is shown on early maps as “Charlie’s Hope”. Brady was executed in 1826, three years before Charles’s reputed arrival. His death certificate states that he had been 76 years in Australia, which would put his year of arrival as about 1831. The quoted stories are perhaps largely legend, created by an old man’s imagination plus that of the journalist. A sceptic might even think that Charles had been a convict or the son of a convict, and had changed his name and disguised his origins (4).

Another source gives his birth date as 19 December 1819, and describes him as having a swarthy complexion from his coloured mother. Dawn Jones quotes her mother, Adeline Brown, as saying that Charles’s mother was French, that he went to school in France and spoke French and Hindi fluently. Apart from the linguistic accomplishment, this sounds like fantasy. Another report says he was known locally as “the Hindu” (5.)

A newspaper notice by James Fielder of Howrah Farm, Clarence Plains, dated 17 November 1834, probably refers to Charles. It reads:
Run Away
On Friday the 14th Instant, my apprentice boy, named Charles Connor,
a native of India, between 16 and 17 years of age. I therefore warn
all per sons against harbouring him. He has on a narrow blue striped
shirt, under a blue baize shirt, duck trowsers, lace shoes, and a tarpauling
hat. A reward often shillings will be given by the Undersigned to any
constable who may take him up.
This would place his birth in 1817-1818 (6.)

Nevertheless, there are more solid testimonies to Charles’s life. The first official reference is to him as person in charge of a household at Richmond in the Parish of Ormaig in the 1842 Census. John Stokel owned the house, and it is described as being of stone, unfinished, and inhabited by four single males, between the ages of 21 and 45. The tables show one man to have arrived free, another to be holding a ticket of leave, and two on private assignment. Presumably Charles was the free arrival, as his name does not appear on the convict lists. Two of the men were Anglicans and two Catholics. Three belonged to the category of “gardeners, stockmen, persons employed in agriculture”; the fourth was a domestic servant. They were probably all employed by Stokel (7.)

Charlie was claimed to be the first man to drive a team from Launceston to the new settlement of Circular Head and the second to build a house there. He supposedly came to Sleepy Hollow or North Forest in 1843. The Van Diemen’s Land (VDL) Company offered forest lands for lease for seven years at two shillings per acre, with the right to purchase at two pounds per acre. The company agreed to purchase all of a tenant’s produce at the rate of: wheat 7/-, barley 5/- and oats 4/- per bushel, and potatoes at 5 pounds per ton. These rates caused the company heavy losses at first, but the gold discoveries in Victoria opened up a highly remunerative market.  At the port of Stanley grain realised 20/- per bushel, and potatoes 22 pounds per ton.  However, the failure of local merchants set Charles back severely, and he practically had to make a fresh start.  Nevertheless, by the exercise of thrift, industry and integrity, he was placed in a position of honourable independence to spend his declining years at his homestead of Rosebank.  His original home has been occupied by Peter Muir-Wilson since 1949 (8).

A return of the Van Diemen’s Land Company, dated 31 December 1843, shows Charles O’ Connor, farmer, having a farm situated at Forest, Circular Head. The return shows that Charles had three labourers on a 65 acre property, and confirms that it was rented at 2 shillings per acre, with the right of purchase at two pounds per acre.  Charles had cleared four acres and had four under crop.  He also had six cattle.  By 1847 he had cleared and planted four acres to potatoes and four to grain.  Judging by the Company’s assessment of his future father-in-law, Stephen Gray, in the 1843 report, Charles probably took up his tenancy at Circular Head at about the same time, that is in early 1842 (9).
During the next twenty years Charles made good progress, as is exemplified in an 1861 advertisement:

Potatoes, Globe Onions, Barley and Oats
To Merchants, Captains and Shipping Agents

Charles O’Connor will have in readiness to offer for shipment in February next, two hundred tons of the far-famed and well known superior growth of potatoes, the produce of his own farm. In addition to which a vast quantity of fine GLOBE ONIONS from a most particular seed, together with a general supply of BARLEY and OATS of a first rate quality. Terms, ready CASH, for which a liberal discount will be allowed; parties can be supplied in either small or larger quantities. Boxes provided, if required for shipping potatoes and onions to California on the shortest notice.
P.S. all letters and correspondence to be addressed post-paid to

Charles O’Connor, Rose Bank Farm, the Forest, Circular Head.
Circular Head, January 8 (10).

Charles may have had an earlier wife, but his first recorded wife was Agnes White, whom he married on 9 August 1849 in the Independent Chapel, Tamar Street, Launceston.  Poor Agnes bore him eight children before dying of gastric fever at Circular Head on 25 June 1860 leaving six children, the eldest only ten.  She was 40 years old, and it is significant that this was only ten days after the birth of her youngest child.  Their neighbour’s daughter, Patience Gray, is said to have nursed Agnes on her death bed. Patience and Charles, widow and widower, married some twenty two months after the death of Agnes, on 3 May 1862 at Black River, Forest. Patience bore Charles a further ten children (11).

Patience Jane was the first born of the children of Stephen and Mary Gray.  She had been baptised by Archdeacon Hutchins at St. Thomas Apostle Church, Avoca in the parish of Campbell Town on 2 September 1838. Her father at that time was a labourer at Avoca. On 14 April 1852 she was married at Launceston to Michael Burnes, also known as Barnes or Burns.  He was a blacksmith, and was probably the Michael Burns found by the Stanley Coroner, Thomas Murray, to have accidentally drowned attempting to cross the river Cam on 22 September I860 (12).

In 1856 Charles was qualified for jury service by virtue of having a personal estate exceeding 500 pounds.  The land valuation records in the Hobart Gazette show that in 1862 Charles O ‘Connor of Rosebank, Muddy Creek owned 30 acres on the Back Line Road, Circular Head, and that these were occupied by Mary Gray, presumably his mother-in-law. In 1864 he gave up tenancy of the 77 acre Farm 31 on Black River Road.  The 1866 valuations show that Rosebank was of 65 acres with an annual value of 48 pounds, and that he also rented Farm 6, Muddy Creek, of 40 acres and value 30 pounds, from the Van Diemen’s Land Company.  These farms were gradually reduced in value over the years.  By 1875 Rosebank was owned by Mrs. Frances Smith of 66 Marshall Street, Stanley. However, by 1879 Charles was renting the two farms, plus 80 acres of the St. James Glebe from the Presbyterian Church. In 1885 he had given up the Glebe farm, but in 1889 he owned a cottage and 65 acres, capital value 400 pounds, at Forest.  Rosebank has been occupied since 1949 by Peter Muir-Wilson (13).

There is a story that Charles was sleeping one day in a chair on the verandah of his house when he was woken by the feeling of something moving inside his trouser leg. It was a snake. He grabbed the head with one hand and the tail with the other while it was still inside his trousers. But he was left standing uncomfortably like this for a considerable time until someone came along to help him remove the snake (14).

Charles O’Connor of Circular Head was one of the signatories of a petition to the Colonial Treasurer in 1877. The Circular Head Chronicle noted in 1907 that the friends and relatives of Mr. Charles O’Connor of Forest were anxious concerning the state of his health. In his 88th year, he was one of the oldest residents of the district, and held in high esteem by all. A few weeks later he died at Stanley on 13 December, in his 89th year. The Chronicle reported that his funeral had taken place at the West Forest Cemetery on the Sunday last. The deceased, who was nearly 89 years of age, had many friends who came to witness the last sad rites. He left a widow and a grown-up family to mourn his loss. His death certificate discloses that he was 88 years old and suffering from senile decay, an enlarged prostate and cystitis (15).

His widow, Patience, did not long survive her husband. She died on 17 May of the following year at Forest, supposedly aged 77, but more likely 70 from her baptismal date, or 72 from her marriage date.  Her end was so sudden that an inquest was held, at which it appeared that she suffered from fatty degeneration of the heart and disease of the aortic valve. The gruesome story is told that Mona Atkins was taken in to see the corpse before the burial. It was lying on a table in the parlour, covered with meat plates loaded with salt to prevent the corpse blowing up [16].

Charles and his two wives, Agnes and Patience, contributed in no small way to the development of Circular Head. They have left many descendants in Circular Head and elsewhere throughout Australia, but that is another story.

Author’s Note:
This article is an edited extract from a book which I am writing entitled ‘The Greys of Circular Head’, which will attempt to tell the story of Circular Head pioneers Stephen and Mary Grey and their descendants. The book is based on official documents, newspaper reports and correspondence from many members of the family. I would welcome any further information or comments. My address is: D. J. Davies, 51 Calder Crescent, Holder ACT 2611.

FOOTNOTES
1. A. J. Grey per A. Bartlett
2. Courier 5 and 12 Mar 1908
3. ibid
4. Tasmanian Archives letter 24 Jun 1977; death certificate of C. O’Connor
5. A. O’Connor and D. Jones per E. Fuhrman; Y. Muir-Wilson per A. Bartlett
6. Colonial Times 25 Nov 1834
7. Archives CEN 1/37 No. 15; Advocate 2 Feb 1980
8. Courier 5 and 12 Mar 1908; Advocate 2 Feb 1980
9. Archives CSO 8/125/2582; Advocate 2 Feb 1980
10. Cornwall Chronicle 12 Feb 1861
11. Tasmanian births, deaths and marriages records (BDM); A. Bartlett
12. BDM
13. Hobart Gazette 2 Sep 1856, 22 Apr 1862, 13 Dec 1864, 8 May 1866, 21 Feb 1871,12 Oct 1875,12 Nov 1879,3 Nov 1885,6 Nov 1888,9 Jul 1889; Advocate 2 Feb 1980
14. Y. Muir-Wilson per A. Bartlett
15. Tasmanian Mail 29 Sep 1887; Advocate 18 Dec 1907; Chronicle 27 Nov 1907,19 Dec 1907; Courier 5 and 12 Mar 1908; BDM
16. BDM; North-west Advocate 20 May 1908; Y. Muir-Wilson per A. Bartlett.

** This article has been reproduced above with the permission of the Circular Head Historical Society [pers. communication 9 June 2010]. Please see the entries: NATIVE BOY (from Calcutta?) and also: Mrs Fenton under country heading: India in the neighbouring list of Immigrants to VDL beyond the British Isles to 1900, that suggests that Charles O Connor uncertain arrival c.1829, may have been with Mrs Fenton from India in 1829 as the unidentified Indian boy. Many thanks to Carol Brill for alerting me to this reading of Charles O Connor’s possible original arrival as this boy, and providing this article which in turn led me to contact the Circular Head Historical Society. JG

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WANTED

Tuesday 23 January 1843 Colonial Times (Hobart) P1 of 4

House Servant, Wanted. ANY STEADY MAN of good character who can Cook Plain Food, and is willing   to make himself generally useful, may hear, of a comfortable situation by application to Mrs. Macdougall, at the Registry Office, Collins, Street, A Ticket-of-Leave, or a man of colour, would. not be objected to. January 19, 1843, 143. Ref: http://newspapers.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/8754443?searchTerm=%22man+of+colour%22#pstart670345

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WANTED

Wednesday 8 May 1850 The Courier (Hobart) p3 of 4

WANTED, a MAN of colour, as a first-rate Cook and Confectioner; a pass-holder would be preferred, if he has a good character. 958. Ref: http://newspapers.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/2963012?searchTerm=%22man+of+colour%22

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Saturday 21 March 1829 The Hobart Town Courier   p2 of 4

http://newspapers.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/4217554?searchTerm=%22black+woman%22

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POST 1900 – but too strange not to include….

The Mercury, 25 March 1920, p3 of 8

http://newspapers.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/11465805/943956?zoomLevel=3

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Tuesday 7 November 1854 The Sydney Morning Herald p5 of 8

http://newspapers.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/12952853?

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Thursday 6 August 1863 The Sydney Morning Herald p4 of 8

http://newspapers.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/13082691?searchTerm=tasmania

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Charles Brentani : a wide awake genius

abstract of longer article by Douglas Wilkie

When Charles Brentani died, his death was announced in a single line in the ‘Argus’ simply as being at ‘his private residence, Collingwood’, but no obituaries appear to have been written. Nevertheless, years later, James Snyder Browne recalled, “Charles Brentani, a naturalised Italian, was the owner of a watchmaker’s and jeweler’s shop in Collins street, and not only the name, but the face, antics, and peculiarities of this somewhat remarkable man will be remembered by all colonists living in Melbourne between the years 1847 and 1854.”
Transported as an eighteen year old youth, Charles Brentani learned from his experiences, and from those around him, to make his way in the world. The ‘Colonial Times’ once described him as a ‘wide awake genius’. In business matters he knew how to take the right steps and meet the right people to ensure that both he and his family enjoyed success and respectability. Not once was his life as a convict directly mentioned in the press and, from the details provided after his death by his business partner Weavell, we might assume that most people knew nothing about this aspect of his life. Within three years of becoming a naturalised citizen Brentani aquired 12 properties in Melbourne between 1850 and 1853. We can only wonder where his acquisition of property and other business ventures might have stopped had he not died at the age of thirty six.

This paper investigates the life of Charles Brentani and is part of the longer work ‘The Deconstruction of a Convict Past’
http://academia.edu/Papers/in/Charles_Brentani

The Flemington Cup, 1849. Artist:  Charles Bretani. Born:  1817 in Cadenabbia, Lombardy, Italy. Died:  21 October 1853, Collingwood-Vic
http://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/col/work/16086
The cup was made by silversmith Charles Brentani, who was one of only two silversmiths in Australia at the time –
http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1301&dat=19841012&id=OjdWAAAAIBAJ&sjid=fugDAAAAIBAJ&pg=5739,5780358

CHARLES BRENTANI

Further information by Trish Symonds

The first Italians who came to Melbourne were adventurers or ex-convicts. Carlo Brentani, transported to Van Diemen’s Land, became a respectable silversmith in Collins Street and was commissioned to craft the winner’s trophy for the 1849 Flemington races.

Charles Brentani (alias Brittania) was convicted in York (West Riding), Yorkshire England on the 22nd October 1834 and sentenced to seven years transportation to Van Diemen’s Land. He was transported on the vessel “The Aurora” arriving 7th October 1835, having left the UK on 27th June 1835. There were a number of Brentani’s living at York, Yorkshire, England in the 1830’s.

In the Hobart Town Courier Friday 7th July 1837, as a convict, he was reported as being transferred:-

Transfers.

Patrick Wood, Clyde, 2244 W. Baird, Syren, from J. Nash, Black Snake.

S. Griffiths, New Norfolk, 2353 C. Brentani, Aurora, from W. Smith, New Norfolk.

In the Hobart Courier of 3rd August 1841 Carlo’s name is listed as having an unclaimed letter sitting at the Post Office.

On 5th October 1841 the following government notice was posted:-

The period for which the under-mentioned persons were transposed expiring at the date placed after ,their respective names, Certificates of their Freedom i may be obtained then, or at any subsequent period, ¡upon application at the Muster Master’s Office, Hobart Town, or at that of a Police Magistrate in the interior:-

“Aurora”.-Brentani, Charles,.alias Brittnnnla,’Oct 22,

Carlo or Charles (as he was to be known) Brentani had a short but colourful life. On the 2nd October 1844 he left Launceston, Tasmania having been married, and headed for Port Phillip aboard the vessel ” Scout”.(Archives Office of Tasmania Ref POL459/2 page 47).

Colonial Times – Hobart 14th November 1845

November 8.-Sailed the brig Scout, Gwatkln, master, for Melbourne. Passengers-Mr. and Mrs. Bell and three children, Mr. and Mrs. Powell and two children. Henry and John Crook, Mr. John Bitterwall, Mr. Jackson, Mr. Cruikshank, Mr. John Alison, Charles Brentani, F. Liardet, William Mann, John Nokes, Samuel Collard, William Bell, George Cooper, William Downes, A. Forment, William Hill, A. Draper, Thomas Simmonds, Joseph and Mary Fowler and three children.

Carlo at this point no doubt became Charles and he had his freedom and obviously had the incentive to make something of his life in the new prospering Colony.

In 1847 Charles was reported in the list of Burgesses of Melbourne.

On the 22nd January 1847 Charles thought he may have gained a foothold in society however at a Special Court of Petty Sessions it was reported that the Government was putting together a list of names for those responsible persons to serve on a jury. Carlo’s name was reported thus:-

The following names were struck out of the lists for the reasons set opposite their respective names :Messrs. Henrickson, (alien) Brentani (alien) W. E. Hammond, (lawyer’s clerk,) J. Dodd, (removed,) W. Hart, (removed,) T. Kalz, (ulien) A. F. Musgrave, (articled clerk,) D. M’Luchlan, (over age,) F. W. A. Rucker, (alien,) James Smith (above age,) C. Wedge, (absent).

Argus 5th November 1847

SERIOUS CHARGE.-Yesterday afternoon Mr. Charet, the watchmaker, and a man who formerly been in the employment of Mr. Brentani the watchmaker, of Collins-street, were lodged in the watch house under the following circumstances. Sometime since, a number of watches were stolen from Mr. Brentani, one of which was yesterday traced to the possession of Mr. Charet, the number of the watch had been erased, and Mr. Charet accounted for its possession by stating thut he had purchased it from the party who had been in Mr. Brentani’s employ. The case will be investigated this morning.

Some eleven days later on 16th November 1847 Charles made a trip to Hobart, aboard the steamer “Shamrock” (Hobart Courier 20th Nov 1847). Coincidentally on the same vessel was L. Cetta believed to be Guiliano Cetta who, following the death of John Dowling in January 1848, married John’s widowed wife Mary nee Walsh.

One of Charles’ early employees was a Joseph Forrester who had been born in Perth,Scotland and was apprenticed as a silversmith to his renowned uncle Robert Keay, an eminent silversmith in Perth. Young Joseph was charged with housebreaking and was tried at the Old Bailey in 1829. According to the “Old Bailey On-line website the following were details for Joseph’s conviction:-

473. JOSEPH FORRESTER was indicted for feloniously breaking and entering the dwelling-house of Charles Plumley , on the 15th of January , at St. Bridget alias St. Bride, and stealing therein 11 diamond pins, value 25l., and 2 brooches, value 10l. , his property.

JAMES LANGTON . I live in Duke-street, Spitalfields -I am a watchman of St. Bride’s parish; Mr. Charles Plumley’s house is on Ludgate-hill, in the parish of St. Bride . On the 15th of January, about a quarter to eight o’clock at night, I was coming down Ludgate-hill, and saw the prisoner standing against Mr. Plumley’s shopwindow – I did not know his person before; I am quite sure he is the person – he turned his head round and looked about him – I was on the same side of the way, about two doors off near to Fleet-street; there was nobody near him – all in a moment I heard glass crash; he directly sprang from the window, and ran across the road to the Albion office, down Bridge-street, and I after him – he went through the coach-stand, and somebody on the other side of the way stopped him; an alarm had been given by several persons hallooing out Stop him! he kept running, and I lost sight of him for about two minutes; two young men brought him up towards the market – I knew him again, and am certain of his person; I laid hold of his left side, and took him to St. Bride’s watch-house – I left him there, and went on duty; I did not see him searched – I went to Mr. Plumley’s shop, but did not see the property found.

Cross-examined by MR. ALLEY. Q. Are you quite sure the prisoner is the man? A. I am; I did not know him before.

WILLIAM SINFIELD. I am shopman to Mr. Charles Plumley – he has no partner; I have lived with him and his father nearly forty years. I was in the shop when the window was broken – I heard a crash, looked round, and saw a man’s hand in the window; I ran out, and before I could get out the party was gone – on looking over the window we missed a cushion with diamond pins and brooches worth between 30Pds. and 40Pds.; two of the pins have been found since – Mr. Plumley picked up one, and I believe a witness another; the house is in the parish of St. Bride.

Cross-examined. Q. Is not Mr. Plumley in partnership with Mr. William Davis? A. Not in the business on Ludgate-hill, I believe; but am not certain – Mr. Davis does not assist in the business; he never lived nor lodged in the house – it is entirely occupied by Mr. Plumley.

JAMES GRIMMAN. I am a hair-dresser, and live in Fleet-street. I was crossing Bridge-street about a quarter to eight o’clock on the 15th of January – an alarm was raised, and I saw the prisoner running down Bridge-street very swiftly – he was the person pursued; several people behind him were calling Stop thief! I pursued him into Crescent-place; and finding there was no thoroughfare there, he was returning, when I put my hand on his arm and secured him – I am certain he is the same person I saw pursued, and running from the cry – he made no resistance; I asked him what he had been about; he answered, “Why, I have only broken a window; let me go” – I am certain he said that; other persons came up, and he said “Take me quietly, don’t make a noise” – I went to the watch-house, but did not see him searched.

RICHARD SHORT. I am an engraver, and live in Bride-lane. I was crossing Bridge-street, at a quarter to eight o’clock, and saw the prisoner running, and people calling Stop thief! he turned up Crescent-place – I followed, and he was taken; I saw one pin picked up, about the centre of the crescent, which is no thoroughfare – two diamond pins were found there; I saw one picked up, and saw one after it was picked up – Mr. Plumley claimed them.

HENRY WAKE. I live in Poppin’s-court, Fleet-street: the prisoner was brought to the watch-house to me – I am the night-officer; I found nothing on him – I went out with a lantern; Mr. Plumley, and the watch-housekeeper went down Bridge-street, into Crescent-place – and halfway up Crescent-place, I picked up a diamond pin, and a few yards from me, Mr. Plumley picked up another, and claimed them both.

GEORGE FREDERICK BOOTH. I am an inspector of St. Bride’s. I was in the watch-house when the prisoner was brought in; I found none of the property on him – I went with the night-officer to Crescent-place, and saw one of the pins picked up by Mr. Plumley.

MR. CHARLES PLUMLEY . I am a jeweller, and live on Ludgate-hill, in the parish of St. Bride’s. I was not in the shop at the time this happened, but heard of it almost immediately; I stopped at the window to take care of the property – I afterwards went to the watch-house, and then to Crescent-place, and, as near the spot as possible he was stopped at, I picked up two diamond pins – Wake, the officer, has the other; they are two of the pins which were on the cushion in my window – the value of those two is about 5l.; the value of all on the cushion is near 40l. – I have no partner in the business on Ludgate-hill; I have a partner in a wholesale jewellery concern, but none in the shop: it is my sole property – there were eleven pins and two brooches.

GUILTY – DEATH . Aged 24.

His death sentence was commuted to transportation for life and he arrived aboard the vessel “Thames” on 20th November 1829 in Hobart, Van Diemans Land. Forrester received a conditional pardon in 1845 and during his time in Tasmania he became a well respected silversmith. When he arrived in Port Phillip he was employed by Charles Brentani. Any other silversmith/jeweller who had not been a convict previously would have had some hesitation in employing a convict, but not Brentani.

According to the 1847 Port Phillip Directory Charles was listed as a Watchmamker in Collins Street.

In these excerpts of correspondence regarding gold being found first in Victoria he gets a mention:.

The first record of Native Police being stationed at a gold discovery is dated 5 February 1849. The entry in the Day Book held at the Native Police headquarters at Nerre Nerre Warren states that William Dana , Sergeant Richard McLelland and eight troopers departed ‘for the Gold mine’. The place they went to was located in an area known as the Pyrenees, at a station called Daisy Hill about 40 km north of Ballarat. The station belonged to McNeill and Hall, and it was here that three men, Brentani, Chapman and Duchene, had recently found some gold.

The Commissioner of Crown Lands responsible for this district, FA Powlett, was also asked to attend. On 22 February 1849 he reported to Superintendent Charles La Trobe that there were between 30 and 40 men at the station of Hall and McNeill. Powlett took note of the kinds of equipmentthe men were using. He also reported that once the Native Police arrived, everybody who had been at the station decided to leave. He was convinced that nobody had found any gold there, and that the real location of the gold was being kept a secret by those who had discovered it. Powlett ordered Sergeant McLelland and some of the troopers to stay at the station ‘to prevent any unauthorised occupation of Crown Lands in the neighbourhood’. In a report regarding Native Police activities for 1849, Henry EP Dana stated that the Native Police had been ordered to ‘take possession of the Gold Mine’ that was supposed to exist there. These statements suggest that the government of the Port Phillip District wanted to assert control over the gold discovery and keep it quiet.

VPRS 103/P Outward Letter Book, Commissioner of Crown Lands Western Port, unit 1, item 49/1 49/12

His Honor

The Superintendent

Melbourne 22d. February 1849

Sir,

I have the honor to report that in compliance with your Honor’s instructions of the 7th. February, I proceeded to the neighbourhood of the Pyrenees, and found that some thirty or forty people had congregated at an out station of Mesrs. Hall & McNeill, called Daisy Hill 10 miles west of the Deep Creek (one of the branches of the River Loddon) which is the locality pointed out by Mr. Duchene as the spot to which the shepherd conducted Brentani and himself.

The people who were searching for gold had a variety of implements – Pick-axes. Shovels. Hoes, &c, andfor the purpose of carrying away the treasure, large baskets Saddle bags &c. Immediately the Police arrived, every one left the stationand I have no reason to think they found a single piece of gold.

I rode about the ranges, and tracked a cart to a place where the ground had been dug up, but not to any depth:- not being a mineralogist I am unable to form an opinion as to the probability of gold being found there, but I have brought home specimens of the formation which is chiefly Sandstone & Quartz.

The shepherd who accompanied Messr. Brentani & Duchene is named Thomas Chapman, he was some time in the service of Messr Hall & McNeill, and chiefly employed at the Daisy Hill station:- he gave Mr Hale a small piece of gold last August, which appears very similar to the gold in the quartz shewn to your Honor by Mr. Duchene, and stated to have been bought by him of the shepherd.

I have left a Sergeant and a party of Native Police at the Daisy Hill Station to prevent any unauthorised occupation of Crown Lands in the neighbourhood, but it remains now for your Honor to decide what further steps should be taken in the matter.

There seems to be some mystery about the shepherd Thomas Chapman, who is generally supposed to have gone to Sydney, perhaps the only way to get at him would be to offer a reward according to the value of the information given to the authorities, not to exceed a certain sum.

In my opinion there is little doubt that the gold in the possession of Messr. Bentani & Duchene was found in the neighbourhood of the Daisy Hill Station by the shepherd Thomas Chapman, and I think it [crossed out: my duty] very doubtful whether he has taken any person to the spot, as I believe he has told different stories to various people.

I have &c

Sd. F. A. Powlett

According to a Dr Salmon’s address on gold the following:

In the spring of 1849 a party of adventurous young travellers, with two 2-horse drays and equipment, camped on a small creek about two miles from this spot. They had followed for weeks an imperfectly-blazed track from Adelaide, working mainly from compass rather than by sight. F. B. Salmon (my father), T. Nalder, and J. Ingham were of the party, and the watercourse was subsequently known as Daisy Hill Creek. The existence of gold in Australia was not even suspected by them, and their dreams were undisturbed by any anticipation of the stirring scenes that were to be enacted on this truly sylvan stage. (After resting they pursued their way to Melbourne.) In January of the same year, a man dressed like a shepherd, and giving the name of Chapman, entered the shop of Charles Brentani, watchmaker and jeweller, at Collins Street, Melbourne, and offered to sell a piece of quartz, richly veined with gold. He stated, in reply to questions, that he was a shepherd from a station, held by Mr. Hall, near the Pyrenees, where he had picked up the gold, and that he knew where there was plenty more to be had. A party was formed in secret, a dray to be filled with gold’ procured, and a start made for the Pyrenees. Duchesne, a member of the party, returned alone, and Mrs. Brentani, who had been only partially informed as to their intended operations, became anxious for the safety of her husband. Unable to obtain any re-assuring information from Duchesne, who asserted the others had ‘given him the slip’, she at length openly charged him with having murdered her husband, and thus disclosed the secret of the expedition. Brentani and the rest of the party returned, and Duchesne was relieved from responsibility. They had picked up two nuggets of about 20 ounces each, and that was all. Chapman disappeared, but was subsequently seen in Sydney, by Captain Bacchus, of Perewar Station (Bacchus Marsh), who wrote to the Sydney Morning Herald, on 25th July, 1855, saying that Chapman, who was, in his opinion, a thoroughly honest and reliable man, had left Melbourne because he was being watched, and pestered for information about gold. He said he was willing to point out the place where he found the nugget, if paid 50 pounds and his expenses.

In 1851 a nugget, weighing 106 lbs., was brought by aboriginals to Dr. Kerr, of Bathurst, and in the month of May, Hargreaves, a colonist who had been in California, found the country round Bathurst to be auriferous. In the same year Dr. Bruhn, a German mineralogist, gave out that he had discovered gold in the Pyrenees, near the scene of Chapman’s adventures. In the month of March, Mr. William Campbell, of Strath Loddon, member of the Legislative Council of Victoria, observed minute tracts of gold in quartz, on the station of Mr. Donald Cameron, at Climes (named by Mr. Cameron after a farm in Inverness), and also at Burnbank (now Lexton). Fearing that the stations would be ruined he kept his discovery secret until 10th June.

On the 7th December 1849 Charles was naturalised as a citrizen of New South Wales. The certificate gives his age as 29 and that he came to Australia aboard the Corsair in 1839 and that he was a watchmaker. The purpose for his naturalisation was as a result of his wishing to purchase land and under the laws of the time an”alien” could not make such a purchase.

Charles made a number of items from silver which are now in the NGV collections. The Flemington Cup of 1849 was one such piece.

Amazingly the following notice appeared in the Argus 17th March 1852:-

EXPORTS – Wellington for London Charles Brentani, 1 box of gold 160 ounces….

On the 1st January 1853, New Year’s Day the following appeared in the Argus:-

BURGLARIES – On Thursday night, or early on Friday morning, somethieves endeavoured to effect an entrance into the shop of Mr Brentani, Jeweller, Collins-street, by removing a shutter. The noise was heard, and Mr Brentani came forward, Then the men made off. The constables on duty were intoxicated at the time. Anothter burglary wa s effected at the house of Mr Howard, butcher, residing at the corner of Stephen and Little Bourke street, at 3 O’clock on Friday morning, by three armed men, who succeeded in taking away property to the amount of 400Pds.

On the 9th September 1853 Charles and his wife were recorded as arriving in Launceston; according to The Courier (Hobart)

ARRIVALS-5TH SEPTEMBER.

Yarra Yarra, steamer, 350, Gilmore, Melbourne. Passengers-Mr. and Mrs. Brentani, Miss Cox, Mr. and Mrs. Learmonth and two children, Master Dane, Mr. and Mrs. Watson, Mister and Miss Watson, Messrs. A. Clarke, R. Clark, Simson, Richards, Hall, Simpson, Geddes, Huxtable, Glover, Watt and 20 in steerage.

Charles died on 23rd October 1853, from Delerium Tremens. He died at Smith Street Collingwood and the place of his death may have been the Shepherds Arms Hotel.

Probate to his estate was granted 24 November 1853 – according to the Public record Office of Vic.

Charles did not die a poor man, quite the contrary. His Last Will and Testament is as follows:

” This is the Last Will and testament of me Charles Brentani of Collingwood, in the City of Melbourne in the Colony of Victoria, Watchmaker and Jeweller. I give devise and bequeath unto my wife Ann Brentani all that piece of land situate in Collins Street Melbourne Together with the shop dwelling hosue and premises erected thereon and now in the occupation of James Tucker for her life and after her decease unto each one or more of my children as she shall by deed or Will direect and in default thereof to my daughter Louisa Brentani her heirs and assigns forever. I give devise and bequeath unto my wife Ann Brentani all and singular the Goods Stocks in trade fixtures furniture and property of every description which shall at the time of my decease be in or upon the the shop and premises in my own occupation and situate in Collins Street Melbourne to and for her own absolute benefit. I give devise and bequeath to my daughter Mary Ann Brentani all that piece of land situate at the corner of Smith Street and St David Street in Collingwood aforesaid Together with the house and premises erected thereon and now licensed as the Shepherds Arms to hold to my said daughter Mary Ann her heirs assigns forever. I give devise and bequeath to my daughter Elizabeth Brentani all that piece of land situate in Hodgson Street Collingwood aforesaid Together with the four cottages and premises erected thereon and now in the occupation of Willshire, Bennett White and Robertson as tenants to hold to my said daughter Elizabeth for her heirs and assigns forever.I give devise and bequeath to my daughter Matilda all that piece of ground situate in Islington Street Collingwood aforesaid together with the stone house and premises erected thereon in the occupation of one Gore And all that piece of land situate in Islington Street aforesaid together with the weatherboard house and premises erected thereon in the occupation of Mr Ruffley And also all the allotment of land situate at the rear of the last mentioned piece of land being about one hundred and ninety depth in feetTo hold the said several pieces of land and premises to my said daughter Matilda her heirs and assigns forever.I give devise and bequeath to my firstly mentioned daughter Louisa all those pieces of land situate in St David Street Collingwood aforesaid Together with the three weatherboard houses and premises erected on one of the said pieces of land in the occupation of Flanaghan and Also those two pieces of land in Little Collins Street in Melbourne together with the two weatherboard houses and premises erected thereon in the occupation of one Murray to hold the same respecting to my said daughter Matilda her heirs and assigns forever. I give devise and bequeath to my brother Paul Brentani all that piece of land situate near Williamstown in the Colony of Victoria purchased by me from Mr Buglafs and being three quarters of an acre And all that piece or allotment of land in geelong in the said Colony being in Wellington Street. Also all that piece of land situate in Harrington Street in the township of Bunninyong in the said Colony opprisite (sic) the Church. And all that piece of land situate on the Ballontaro estate near Sydney in the Colony of New South Wales To hold the same pieces of land respectively unto the said paul Brentani his heirs and assigns forever. I give devise and bequeath to my said wife Ann Brentani all the revertion (?) of land in that Hotel called Cadenabbie on the lake Como in the Kingdom of Italy now in the possession of my mother during her life.To hold the same unto my said wife her heirs and assigns forever.

And as to all and singular the net residue and remainder of my estate property and effectsboth real and personal which I may have at the time of my decease or over which I have a disposing power i give and bequeath the same respectively to my said wife her heirs and assigns forever To and for her absolute benefit. I appoint James Raven of melbourne aforesaid Merchant and my said wife Ann Brentani executors of this my Will and I appoint my said wife Ann Brentani guardian of my children during their respective minorities And I hereby revoke all other Wills heretofore made by me and declare this to be my Last Will and Testament. in witness hereof I have set my hand at the foot of the other side this sheet of paper and at the foot of this my Will this first day of August within year of Our Lord One thousand eight hundred and fifty three. C.Brentani

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EMUE, EMMA   and  KALLOONGOO, SARAH, CHARLOTTE

Kalloongoo (and Emue?) were from Rapid Bay and Yankalilla, south of Adelaide, north of Cape Jervis.

Excerpts from: Amery, Rob, 1996, ‘Kaurna in Tasmania; A case of mistaken identity’, Aboriginal History, vol 20, pp24-50. [below p.37-42 ]

[p 37]…. Some of the Kauma women kidnapped from the southern Kauma region ended up living with sealers in Bass Strait. In 1831, Robinson noted that there were Aboriginal

[p 38] women from Kangaroo Island present on islands in the Kent Group in the Eastern Bass Straits north of Flinders Island. Fn 23 One of these women Emue or Emma, was a Kaurna woman who was living with a woman named John Anderson, alias Abyssinia Jack Anderson, told Robinson that  “… [he] has a black women living with him, which he got from off the main of the coast of New Holland opposite Kangaroo Island and has lived with her ever since. Says he has ten children by her, five of whom are alive. Got  a black boy from the main, son to this woman, four years since.” Fn 24

On 23rd July 1836, Robinson reports that: Corporal Ramsay returned to the settlement from the Sisters Islands [immediately to the north of Flinders Island] having removed the sealers, who offered no resistance. They had been on the islands about a fortnight …They had two boats. Abyssinia Jack had charge of one with some Hew Holland women and also VDL [Tasmanian] women named [ ]. The New Holland women were the same that had been stolen from their country adjacent to Kangaroo Island by George Meredith jnr of Oyster Bay…The sealers had several halfcaste children on board of their boats. There were three men in the boat, Abyssinia Jack, Everett and another…Abyssinia Jack and another sealer stop on Woody Island. They reported that there was three men on Gun Carriage [island adjacent to Woody Island in between Hinders and Cape Barren Islands]. They had with them several New Holland women. Fn25

In 1837 Emue was still living with Anderson, then on Woody Island, in between Flinders and Cape Barren Island. Robinson’s journal entry of 10 January 1837 contains the following: Woody Isle: Abyssinia Jack and three women native of New Holland; one with Everett one infant; with Abyssinia a woman Emue and three children; a woman native of Spencers Gulf has been left by Dutton, this woman has a boy by a black man, she wishes to leave the sealers. fn 26

This latter woman, Kalloongoo, also named Sarah by the sealers and renamed Charlotte by Robinson, is crucial to the story of Robinson’s Kaurna wordlist. Plomley’s annotations to Robinson’s journal for 1 June 1837 note that: Corporal Miller left the settlement on the morning of 31 May for Woody Island and reached there that evening. He was accompanied by two aboriginal women, Rebecca and Matilda. On arrival at Woody Island, Miller interviewed the one sealer there, John Anderson, who told him that sometimes another sealer lived there too, but that he had ‘gone to port’. There were two native women and three children on the island, of whom one woman and two children belonged to Anderson. The other woman, after talking to the women from the settlement, was willing to quit the island on the understanding that she would be conveyed to her own country, i.e. New Holland She was known as Sarah or Charlotte, and was about twenty years old. Fn 27

[p 40] On June 1st 1837, Kalloongoo was brought to Robinson’s settlement at Flinder’s Island and remained there until the 25 February 1839 when she was taken by Robinson to Port Phillip (Melbourne). Whilst at Flinders Island, Kalloongoo lived in Robinson’s house and worked for him as a domestic servant, and thus is the most likely source of the Kaurna wordlist. It is most likely that Charles Robinson recorded the wordlist somewhere between June 1837 and February 1839, as he was in constant contact with her during this period.

On arrival at Flinders lsland, Kalloongoo gave a lengthy account to Robinson of how she was kidnapped and her subsequent life with sealers on Kangaroo Island and in Bass Strait. In addition she provided specific details of her origins. Her interview with Robinson, as recorded in Robinson’s journal for June 2nd 1837, is provided here in full: Interrogated the woman who arrived last night from Woody Island; result as follows-(I) KAL.LOON.GOO, (2) COWWER.PITE.YER, (3) WIN.DEER.RER alias Sarah an aboriginal female of New Holland, the point opposite to Kangaroo Island, the west point of Port Lincoln. Was forcibly taken from her country by a sealer named James Allan who in company with another sealer Bill Johnson (this man was drowned subsequent to my visit to Port Philip) conveyed her across to Kangaroo Island where she remained for a considerable time until she was seized upon by Johnson and forced on board the schooner Henry J Griffith owner and master and brought to the straits, when Johnson sold her to Bill Dutton, who had subsequently abandoned her. She had a child by Dutton a girl which he took away with him. The woman states that at the time she was seized and torn from her country, Allan the sealer was led or guided to her encampment and where her mother and sister then was by two blackfellows her countrymen but not her tribe and who had been living with the sealers on the island [Kangaroo Island]. Said the blackfellows came sneaking and laid hold of my hand; the other girl ran away. The white man put a rope around my neck like a dog, tie up my hands. We slept in the bush one night and they then tied my legs. In the morning we went to the boat. They took me then to Kangaroo Island. She remained there a long time until she was brought away in the schooner [Henry owned by J. Griffith] to the straits. She said there were several New Holland [mainlander] black men on Kangaroo Island. Said two of them died from eating seal; her brother died also from eating seal. Said the sealers beat the black women plenty; they cut a piece of flesh off a woman’s buttock; cut off a boy’s ear, Emue’s boy. This woman [Emue] is now on Woody Island with Abyssinia Jack. The boy died in consequence of his wounds. They cut them with broad sealer’s knives. Said they tied them up and beat them and beat them with ropes. Fn 28 Bill Dutton beat her plenty. Said the sealers got drunk plenty and women get drunk too. Said the country where she came from was called BAT.BUN.GER [Patpangga = Rapid Bay] YANG.GAL.LALE.LAR [Yankalilla]. It is situate at the west point of St. Vincents Gulf. Said that Emue’s brother was her husband. It is on the sea coast; there is a long sandy beach with three rivers. MAN.NUNE.GAR is the name of the country where she was born. Kangaroo island is called DIRKI.YER.TUN.GER.YER.TER; WAT.ER.KER.TER, an island. (YAR.PER, a hole; called the hole in the cartilage of her nose YAR.PER.) (1) WHIRLE (2) WHIR.LE, house. Fire, KIR.LER. Wood, (1) NAR.RER (2) NAR.RAR.

[p 41] This aboriginal female of NH  KAL.LOON.GOO has a hole through the cartilage of her nose. She relates the following circumstances in reference to her removal from Kangaroo Island. She said one day the schooner Henry John Griffith master and owner came to Kangaroo Island. Allan was away at this time at another part of the island. Said that Johnson tied her hands and feet and put her on board of the schooner, when he and Harry Wally came away in the schooner to the islands in the straits. A sealer Harry Wally assisted in tying her. Subsequently Johnson sold her to Bill Dutton by whom she had a female child a girl. She had had a male child by a Sydney black a sealer. This child is the one now with her and is about five years of age. Bill Dutton stopped on Woody Island with Abyssinia Jack. He has left about ten moons, has gone away and married a white woman. He took his child the girl with him. She had heard this. He has gone whaling. The boy was born at a rock near to the Julians. She had the girl first by Bill Dutton. Said she was a big girl when Allan took her away from her own country. In answer to a question, ‘do you like this place’, she said ‘yes!’ ‘Do you want to go to Woody Island?’, ‘no, it is no good place, there is nothing there at all’. She got little to eat. Bill Dutton beat her with a rope. She was glad she had got away. In answer to several questions about God she answered she never learnt him, she did not know. The woman’s boy is about five years of age and is very interesting child. The features are European cast, thin lips and small features, and appears intelligent. So also does the mother. The woman’s features are similar to the boy’s. So soon as it was known at the native settlement that a New Holland woman had arrived all the native inhabitants were in motion and an evident excitement was created. Several of the native men came to my quarters but the greater part kept away from bashfulness. Before breakfast I walked with her to the native cottages and introduced her to the aborigines, and she met with a hearty welcome from those generous and simple hearted people. She appeared much delighted with her reception and there appeared a reciprocal feeling between this stranger and the resident aborigines. She brought a bitch and two pups with her. This morning she drew here rations from the store and was put on the strength of the establishment from yesterday the first of June ins!. Much curiosity prevailed on the part of the aborigines, and constant visits was made throughout the day at my house to see the stranger. About noon her son arrived in the boat. I shewed the various kinds of work performed by the male aborigines, the cultivated .land, the fencing, the road making, and the large heap of grass collected by the females, their knitting and domestic work, with the whole of which she appeared highly delighted and said she should like to learn to work like them. At 6 pm she accompanied me to the evening school and here she appeared to be quite overcome with astonishment at what she witnessed. This was a new scene, an epocha she had not possible conceived. Here she beheld people of her own colour engaged at learning what she could not comprehend native children teaching native men and women. Heard the whole in one united chorus singing the praises of God, of that being of whom she had not heard and of whom she acknowledged she had not the slightest conception. All was wonder to her poor untutored mind. I shall not easily forget with what astonishment she looked when the congregation began to sing, and it appeared equally a matter of surprise to her when the native men stood up to pray. She said she wished to learn and I instructed her in the alphabet, I suppose the first time in her life.

[p42] 3 June Sat This morning the aboriginal female of New Holland was brought to the office and interrogated by the Commandant in the presence of the storekeeper Mr L Dickenson and Mr Clark the catechist and which was signed by those gentlemen and is herewith annexed by which it will be seen that this poor creature has been cruelly treated and left in total ignorance of the Being of a God. She made the statement and answered the questions without the least embarrassment….This evening Charlotte was again surprised at what she witnessed at our family worship. On the arrival of this woman a new name was given her Le. Charlotte in lieu of Sarah by which latter she was called by the sealers, and it has been my practice to give new names to all who join the settlement from this class of individuals. She is very docile and quiet and appears industrious. She this day cleaned out my office. Fn 29

Kalloongoo, a Kaurna woman from the region south of Adelaide, and not from Port Lincoln Before proceeding further, it is necessary to clear up a point of confusion inherent in Robinson’s journal entry, and perpetuated in a number of secondary sources published since. Robinson’s interview with Kalloongoo quoted above begins with the statement that ‘KAL.LOON.GOO, (2) COWWER.PITE.YER, (3) WlN.DEER.RERalias Sarah [is] an aboriginal female of New Holland, the point opposite to Kangaroo Island, the west point of Port Lincoln’, Cumpston referring to this journal entry of Robinson’s reiterates that ‘Dutton had obtained a New Holland woman (from Port Lincoln) named Kal.loon.goo (Sarah/Charlotte)’. Fn 30

Barwick also referring to Robinson’s journal, this time for 9th January 1837, makes the statement that two of the women on Gun Carriage Island in the Furneaux Group between Flinders and Cape Barren Islands ‘were certainly from Port Lincoln. Fn 31 and cites personal communication with Plomley that ‘Kalloongoo or Sarah (then renamed Charlotte) was originally kidnapped from Port Lincoln (where she had been married to a brother of the woman Emue or Emme who became the wife of the Abyssinia Jack’ alias John Anderson)’. Fn 32 Mollison, also drawing on Robinson’s journals, refers to Kalloongoo as coming from Port Lincoln. Fn 33

However, later in the interview with Robinson, Kalloongoo ‘said the country where she came from was called BAT.BUN.GER [Patpangga = Rapid Bay] YANG.GAL. LALE.LAR [Yankalilla]. It is situate at the west point of St. Vincents Gulf’. Rapid Bay and Yankalilla are located to the south of Adelaide, north of Cape Jervis. The reference to Kalloongoo coming from Port Lincoln then is probably due to Robinson’s lack of knowledge of the geography of the South Australian coast. Robinson recorded this interview in 1837, one year after the establishment of the South Australian colony, when Port Lincoln was nothing more than a name and a dot on a map. The town of Port Lincoln was not surveyed until 1840.

Footnotes
20  Moore cited in Clarke, 1994: 7.
21 In 1822 a sealer was encountered on the South Island of New Zealand. ‘The man Stuart had come from Kangaroo Island with a wife of the country and two children to settle in New Zealand; but having with his family been taken prisoner by the natives IMaoris], he had adopted their customs [and] was employed by the chiefs… as a pilot…for finding all the different hiding places of the Americans’ (Cumpston, 1970, p. 63). It is unclear exactly when this woman, likely to have been a Kaurna woman, went to New Zealand. It is also known that in 1823 another woman from Kangaroo Island (possibly a Kaurna woman) was stranded on the South Island of New Zealand for a period of eight months with her small child. The other members of her sealing party belonging to an American ship, the General Gates, had been killed by Maoris. This South Australian woman returned to Sydney in April 1824. (Cumpston, 1970, p. 66). It is possible that these two accounts refer to the same woman, though the dates suggest otherwise.
22  Clarke 1994: 3.
23 Robinson in Plomley, 1966: 327, 335.
24 Plomley, 1966: 327.25 in Plomley, 1987: 366-67.
26 in Plomley, 1987: 416.
27 in Plomley, 1987: 695.
28 This account of cruelty given by Kalloongoo is closely corroborated by Anderson’s and Constable Munro’s versions of the same events documented by Robinson some years earlier in 1831 (Plomley ed. 1966, p. 357, 360, 462, 1010).
29  in Plomley, 1987, pp. 445-447.
30 Cumpston 1970, p. 170.
31  Barwick 1985, p. 212.
32  Barwick 1985, p. 231.
33  Mollison 1976.

Bibliography

Barwick, Diane E. 1985, ‘This Most Resolute Lady: A Biographical Puzzle.’ pp.185-239 in Barwick, D.E., Beckett, J. & Reay, M. (eds) Metaphors of Interpretation: Essays in Honour of W.E.H. Stanner. ANU Press, Canberra.

Clark, Philip forthcoming, ‘Early European Interaction with Aboriginal Hunters and Gatherers on Kangaroo Island, South Australia.’ Aboriginal History, 20, 1996.

Cumpston, J.S. 1970, Kangaroo Island 1800-1836. Roebuck Society, Canberra.

Plomley, N.J.B. (ed.) 1966, Friendly Mission: The Tasmanian Journals and Papers of George Augustus Robinson 1829-1834. Tasmanian Historical Research Association.

Plomley, N.J.B. 1976, A Word-list of the Tasmanian Aboriginal Languages. Govt printers/author, Hobart.

Plomley, N.J.B. Ed, 1987, Weep in Silence: A History of the Flinders Island Aboriginal Settlement. Blubber Head Press, Hobart.

Plomley, N.J,B. & K.A. Henley 1990, ‘The Sealers of Bass Strait and the Cape Barren Island Community’. PP THRA, Blubber Head Press, Hobart.

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The killing of FRANCIS BURROWES/BURROWS

Francis Burrowes was a ‘Coloured boy about 12 years of age’. His father Thomas Burrows was a ship cook on the Culloden and lived  at Sandy Bay in 1859. Francis’ mother was Mary Jane. Francis died on 13 Nov. 1859 from beatings inflicted by Charles Slaughter, and his wife, while working for them and living with them at Franklin, Southern Tasmania. Slaughter was not charged with his murder. The details of the case are kindly provided by Carol BRILL who also alerted me to Francis’ story. Meryl Yost and Gaylene McCooey also found details  of Francis’ parents arrival stories and Francis’ siblings. See details at bottom of this story.

Francis Burrows – “Colored boy” and his father.

Assault. – Charles Slaughter, an elderly man, was brought up charged with assaulting a boy, but as the prosecutor, Francis Burrows, did not appear, the defendant was discharged.
A few minutes afterwards, Mr. Sub Inspector Weale entered the office, and informed His Worship that the boy who had been assaulted was dying. Mr. Weale, then, left the office for the purpose, it is presumed, of re-apprehending Slaughter.
The Hobart Town Daily Mercury 16 August 1859

Assault with intent. – Charles Slaughter was on the application of Sub-Inspector Weale, remanded until the 31st inst., upon a charge of assaulting with malicious intent a boy of the name of Francis Burrows. The boy was too seriously injured to be in attendance. The Inspector of Police upon whose warrant the accused had been   apprehended testified to the very dangerous injuries which had been inflicted on the boy, and the Bench, which was applied to by Mr. Lees, to refuse the remand, declined to accede to his request, as a capital charge might arise in the case.
(Before the P.M. and Inspector of Police.)
The Hobart Town Daily Mercury 24 August 1859

Assaulting a Boy. – Charles Slaughter was again brought up on remand on a charge of seriously assaulting a boy, and was further remanded till the 22nd inst.
The Hobart Town Daily Mercury 15 September 1859

Assault with intent. – Charles Slaughter, charged with having assaulted a boy down the river some time since with intent to do grievous bodily harm was again brought up on remand, and further remanded to the 30th inst., the lad being still confined to the Hospital.
(Before Mr. Tarleton and, F. A. Downing, Esquire.)
The Hobart Town Daily Mercury 23 September 1859

Serious Assault. – Charles Slaughter, who has been repeatedly remanded, was again brought up charged with a serious assault on a boy named Francis Burrows, and again further remanded till the 8th of October, the boy being still unable to attend to give evidence.
(Before the Police Magistrate, and Thomas Giblin Esq.)
The Hobart Town Daily Mercury 1 October 1859

Assault with intent. – Charles Slaughter was again brought up on remand on the charge of having beaten a boy named Burroughs, Huon.
Dr. Turnley, Home Surgeon of Her Majesty’s General Hospital, gave evidence that the boy was still lying in the   Hospital in a very dangerous, state, and that witness had but small hopes of his recovery.
The prisoner was further remanded on the application of Mr. Sub-Inspector Weale to Saturday next.
The Hobart Town Daily Mercury 10 October 1859

Assault Case, – Charles Slaughter was again brought up on remand on the charge of having assaulted a boy named Francis Burrows at the Huon some time since. The boy is still lying dangerously ill at Her Majesty’s General Hospital, and the prisoner was further remanded to Friday when the evidence of the boy will most probably be taken at the Hospital, and the remainder of the witnesses be examined at the Police Office.
The Hobart Town Daily Mercury 24 October 1859

Remanded. – Charles Slaughter in custody upon the charge of assaulting the lad Burrows who still lies at the Hospital in a very precarious state, was brought up and further remanded to the 8th instant.
The Hobart Town Daily Mercury 2 November 1859

Biting a Man’s Tongue off. – Ann Williams charged by D.C. Morley with assaulting one James Wise, on the 5th instant, by biting off his tongue, was brought up aud discharged, the prosecutor declining to press the charge.
Assault with Intent. – Charles Slaughter was brought up on remand charged   with assaulting at the Huon one Francis Burrowes with intent to do him some grievous bodily harm, and was further remanded to the 16th instant.
Mr. Weale handed in a medical certificate to the effect that the boy was not expected to survive many days.
The Hobart Town Daily Mercury 9 November 1859

THE INQUEST ON THE BOY BURROWS.  
An Inquest was held before A. B. Jones Esq. at Mr. Chatley’s Gordon Castle Inn, Argyle-street, yesterday, and the following jury, – Messrs. John Regan (foreman,) Thomas Lucas, John Edwards, Samuel Wells Roberts, Charles Toby, William Ferguson, and Robin Lloyd Hood, on the body of Francis Burrows, a colored boy about 12 years of age, whose death it was reported had been caused by repeated acts of violence and illusage at the hands of Charles Slaughter, farmer, Huon, who has been several times brought before Mr. Tarleton, Police Magistrate, Hobart Town, on the charge of assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm, and remanded. The accused was brought before the Coroner by the police.
The inquest was attended by Mr. Forster, Inspector of Police, and Mr. F. J. Weale, Sub-Inspector.
The jury having been sworn Mr. Jones explained to them the nature of the enquiry which thev were called upon to make, and the jury then proceeded to view the body, which presented a pitiable spectacle of emaciation, lying at Her Majesty’s General Hospital where the poor boy died on Sunday last into which institution he was admitted on the 4th August.
Mr. Tarleton, Police Magistrate of Hobart Town and a Justice of the Territory, examined, produced the statement of the deceased taken upon oath at the Hospital on the 28th October, the accused, and Mr. Lees his counsel being also present, Mr. Tarleton stating that accused was on the 23rd August last charged on the oath of Francis John Weale with
having on the 29th day of July last past unlawfully and maliciously inflicted upon Francis Burrows certain grievous bodily harm. At the time the examination was taken, Mr. Tarleton said that although the boy was in a very feeble condition he was perfectly collected and sensible and displayed a considerable amount of  intelligence. The statement of the boy, and which Mr. Tarleton informed the jury was in the boy’s own words, is as follows.
“I am the son of Francis Burrows who lives at Sandy Bay. I know the prisoner Slaughter. About eleven or twelve months ago, he came to my father’s house and slept there. I went back to the Huon with the prisoner Slaughter and his wife. I went to Slaughter’s place to mind his cows for him. My father left me down there with Slaughter. So long as my father remained on board the Culloden steamer, Slaughter gave me plenty to eat. He did not offer to lay a finger on me. I was then quite happy minding his cows. After I had been at Slaughter’s place some time my father left the Culloden and went on board the City of
Hobart steamer. He did not come down to the Huon any more. After my father left the Culloden steamer the prisoner Slaughter treated me very badly. If I misbehaved in the night he would make me get out of bed and turn me out start naked and keep me outside the hut for half an hour or an hour. That was at the time of year when the weather was cold and frosty. A do not remember how many times he turned me out in this way. It was more than once. One day, I do not recollect how long it is, I had done something contrary and the prisoner Slaughter took the poker (the handle of a frying pan) and hit me with it over the back but not so very hard. It did not hurt me so very much. That was the only time he hit me with the poker. It did not make any mark on my back. He used to beat me at night sometimes with a small strap not very thick, because I used not to get up in the night to make water. He used to hit me hard so as to make me cry. Once, when he could not get the strap, he beat me with a stick. He used to kick me sometimes too very hard. He used not to beat me every day. He used to beat me two or three times a week. His wife used to beat me too. The stick with which he beat me was a wattle stick which he cut. He broke it over me. I stopped a good while after my father left the steamer and Slaughter beat me a good deal afterwards. When he beat me with the strap at night I was in my shirt.   He beat me over my back and over my bottom too. He only beat me with the strap and the stick and one hit I got with the poker. I was strong boy when I went down to Slaughter’s place. I was in good health. I did not feel bad at all. I was not when I came away from Slaughter’s, I got my feet all bad running after the cows barefooted among the   frost. I remember coming away from Slaughter’s place on a Saturday morning. There was nothing the matter with my back then. My feet swelled, and my hip got sore. I do not think the kicking made my hip sore. I had no sore places on my back when I came to the hospital. I had a sore on my head when I came there. That was done by Mrs. Slaughter.
The prisoner Slaughter was not there then. When my feet swelled and my hip got bad Slaughter brought me down to the boat and I was put on board the steamer and brought to town. Slaughter paid my passage up. I stopped at my father’s house three days and I was then brought to the hospital. I was not a bad boy. I gave him no provocation to beat me. I did not rise a hand to him but sometimes I could not run fast enough to keep the cows out of the potatoes and he used to beat me for that. Sometimes I was not very good but I never gave him any provocation to beat me in the way he did. No one else beat me but them. It was not a very thick stick that he beat me with. I cannot  recollect any particular day that he beat me. I do not remember that there was a sore place near my bottom. Slaughter kicked me a good many times. He wore thick heavy boots at the time and he kicked me with them hard. I could not walk with them. One night, when the prisoner Slaughter was away in town his wife beat me with a stick and turned me out of the hut. She locked the door and went to bed. I went across the street into a hollow tree and lay down on some stones. The next morning she came across and kicked me on the back almost as hard as she could get at me to kick me. That was two or three days before I came away. When Slaughter came down he did not beat me. I  do not know how long before that Slaughter beat me.”
The boy in answer to Mr. Lees, counsel for the accused, further said.- “I had chilblains before I went down there. I used to carry potatoes for Slaughter when I was well. I need not to have a heavy load, only about as much as I could carry. I used not to sit down on the wet ground. I do not know what was the cause of the pain in my hip. Slaughter saw my feet when they began to swell. He did not send me up till afterwards. Not very long afterwards. I only wet the bed, nothing more. He found fault with me for that and beat me with the strap. He never beat me without reason. I had plenty to eat and plenty to drink.”
The enquiry was here adjourned until two o’clock.
The enquiry was resumed at two, and the following additional evidence was taken.
Mr. Lees attended to watch the case on behalf of the accused.
Dr. G. W. Turnley, House Surgeon, Her Majesty’s General Hospital, examined – stated that deceased was brought to the hospital on the 4th August. He was then in a weak and somewhat emaciated condition. On his trunk and arms were the cicatrices of several (from fifteen to twenty) excoriations of the cuticle, measuring generally about three-quarters of an inch in length, and about a quarter of an inch in width, and seemingly caused by blows inflicted whilst the boy was very slightly clothed, or in a state of nudity. Over the sacrum or bone at the bottom of the spinal column, was an ulcerated spot about an inch in diameter; and at the back of the head, over the upper part of the occipital bone, there was another spot of ulceration. The integuments about the left hip joint were very much swollen. The left thigh and leg were also swollen and edumatous.   On the outer side of the right foot there were two ulcerated spots of about three quarters of an inch in diameter and a patch of ulcerated surface, somewhat smaller than those on the left heel. Twelve days after admission fluctuation was plainly distinguishable over the left hip joint, and upon an incision being made into this part, about a pint of purulent matter was evacuated. The discharge from this abscess continued. Bed sores made their appearance in different parts, and the irritation produced by these, together with the profuse discharge from the hip, soon reduced the patient to a pitiable state of emaciation and debility. The most nourishing diet, with stimulants, was, from the commencement, given to him, but the patient sunk and died on the morning of the 13th instant. On the day prior to his death nearly the whole of the head of the left thigh bone came away. On post-mortem examination I found that the. viscera of the thorax and abdomen were healthy. There was most extensive disease of the left hip joint. The head of the left femur had been destroyed by caries, the neck of the same bone was carious, and the cavity in which tthe head of the bone rotated was completely divested of cartilage, the osseous walls being extensively   carious and in some spots not the sixteenth of an inch in thickness. The boy died of scrofulous inflammation of the left hip joint. Supposing the child to have been subject to a scrofulous disease, a kick, or a severe blow, presuming it to have been severe enough to have produced inflammation of the hip joint, would have brought on a crisis. There was nothing externally to show that a blow had been given when I first saw the hip joint, and the boy stated that he had never received a blow there. He had received blows over his body, but very slight blows. Blows on a boy of scrofulous habits would be less likely to heal so readily as they would in a boy of healthy body. Exposure to cold or wet in a boy of scrofulous habit would be likely to cause serious consequences. It would be likely to cause the deposit of tubercles, which would be generally fatal. The boy stated to me that the blows he had received were given by his mastor, and that they had been given at night. It is my belief judging from the history of the case that death resulted from tubercular deposit the boy being of scrofulous habit and not from any violence. Exposure to cold would be likely to precipitate the disease. I do not believe, to judge from what I saw of the marks of the injuries, that the injuries would have a very slight effect, if any at all, in accelerating the progress of the disease. If severe blows had been inflicted every day, or very frequently, that would no doubt have a very depressing effect upon the boy and would tend to accelerate fatal tendency of the disease. Anything which would tend to lower the system would do so.
“The following certificate by Dr. Turnley to show the inability of the boy to attend at the Police Office was also read and made an exhibit:-
“When admitted the boy Francis Burrows had a number of bruises and excoriations of the skin upon the trunk and upper extremities, evidently the result of a severe beating by some instrument, inflicted while the boy was either in state of nudity or very lightly clothed. Over the lower part of the back there was a large slough about one and a half inch in diameter, and in this part he stated that he had been kicked. His left thigh was very much swollen and an abscess (now considerably increased in size) was beginning to form. He had also received a severe blow on the back of the head and on both feet were large sloughs which may have been occasioned by exposure in frosty weather. He was in a very weak state. August 15th, 1859.”
Richard Minchin, laborer, Thorp’s Hill, Franklin, examined, said he knew the deceased who was living with Slaughter in January last. Witness was at work for Charles Slaughter then. I saw Charles Slaughter very often scolding the boy and I saw him strike him. I saw him kick the boy also. I have seen him beat tho boy with a piece of wood and I have seen him throw the piece of wood at him and say, “you ——— I’ll warm you and make you well.” The boy did not seem to suffer at all any more than he cried a little and went to do what he was told to do. I saw Slaughter beat him three times whilst I was at work for him. I only saw Slaughter kick the boy once. The stick he threw at the boy was a bit of a rail about fifteen inches long and about an inch and a half or two inches thick at one end and only half an inch at the other. Slaughter struck the boy with his fist or hand if you call it so on the head another time. I said to Slaughter “why do you beat the boy so instead of chastising him in a proper manner, you’ll have him cranky beating him about the head.” Slaughter replied “his father told me to chastise him for he was an awful liar.” I said why not get a bit of stick and correct him properly over the back, instead of beating him over the head. Slaughter said “Oh! that didn’t hurt him.” I consider that the boy was beaten unreasonably. He used to have to do work as much or more than a man could do. He seemed to be very well.
In reply to further questions the witness said the boy never complained that he was ill-treated, that he was pretty well clothed, and that he had as much as he liked to eat and drink of whatever there was going. The blow Slaughter gave the boy on the head was with his open hand, but it knocked the boy down.
By the Jury:- I have no ill will to Slaughter. We might have had words. I considered the boy was used cruelly, but I never told any one so.
Patrick Connor, labourer, Franklin, said he lived near Slaughter about four months ago, or a little more, and worked for him about a month. The deceased was then at Slaughter’s and was lightly used. Witness saw no ill-usage of the boy, and only saw Slaughter once or twice hit him with his open hand. The boy was very well and did not complain of ill usage. The boy only got a clouting with the open hand three times, whilst witness was there. The boy had plenty to eat. Does not live so very far off Slaughter’s nor very near, but within “small hearing.”
Mr. William Philip, wharfinger at the Franklin for the Culloden steamer, was called, but only proved that the deceased, whom he lifted aboard the steamer to be   brought up to Hospital, said he was glad he was away, and that the boy whom he often saw was well clothed. Slaughter paid the passage money and desired that the boy might be taken care of.
By the Jury:- Witness never heard any report of the boy having been ill-used until after he left the township.
Mrs. Robertson, wife of Wilson Robertson, fireman on board the Culloden steamer, stated that her husband brought deceased home to his house on Saturday night, the 30th or 31st July last. The boy was in a bad state, and his feet, one of his arms, and his left leg were in a sore state. Witness washed the boy and put him to bed, and bandaged his feet. The boy said Mr. Slaughter had struck him on one arm, and Mrs. Slaughter on the other, and that he had been struck on his head by Mrs. Slaughter. He had marks of his blows on his shoulder and back, and a bruise under the right breast. He said one of the blows on the back was done by the man, and the other by the wife; and that one of the blows on his   back and the blow on his breast always hurt him, and that one of the wounds had been done by a kick from the man, and the other with a poker by Mrs. Slaughter. As the boy got no better and could not get out of bed, witness got him to the Hospital, and he went on the following Thursday. The boy’s father, who had lodged with the husband of witness, was then at Melbourne.
D. C. Carsons, Rural Police, stated that he took deceased to the Hospital, and also gave evidence of the state the boy was in.
Thomas Burrows, Sandy Bay, father of the deceased, ship cook, examined, said deceased was 11 years and six months old when he died, and that when he went to Slaughter’s about twelve months ago, deceased was a very hearty boy and had never been sickly. When Slaughter took the boy away he promised to find him in food and clothing, to give him plenty to eat and wear, and to keep him clean and send him to school as he would his own boy, and witness told Slaughter not to let him tell fibs or to take what did not belong to him, and if he did so to chastise him. Slaughter also promised to give the boy 2s. 6d. a week, but never did so.
This closed the evidence, and the Coroner having briefly reviewed the testimony of the several witnesses, and explained to the Jury the law relating to such cases, the Jury after a short consultation delivered the verdict “That the deceased came to his death through scrofulous inflammation of the hip joint, accelerated by the ill-usage he received from his master, Charles Slaughter.”
The Hobart Town Daily Mercury, 17 November 1859, copied by the Launceston Examiner 19 November 1859

Cruelty to a Colored Boy. – An inquest was held on Wednesday, before A. B. Jones, Esq.,   Coroner, at Hobart Town, on the body of  Francis Burrowes, a colored boy about twelve   years of age, whose death is said to have been caused by repeated acts of violence and ill-   usage at the hands of Charles Slaughter, farmer, Huon, who has been arrested and charged with assaulting the boy with intent do him grievous harm.
The following certificates of Dr. Turnley, House-Surgeon at the General Hospital, show the nature of the injuries inflicted by Slaughter upon the poor boy, whose father had entrusted him to Slaughter’s care, at the Huon, while he himself was employed on board the City of Hobart. – “When admitted the boy Francis Burrows had a number of bruises and excoriation, of the skin upon the trunk and upper extremities, evidently the result of a severe by some instrument, inflicted while the boy was either in a state of nudity of very lightly clothed. Over the lower part of the back there was a large slough about one and a half inch diameter, and in this part he stated that he had been kicked. His left thigh was very much swollen and an abscess (now considerably increased in size) was beginning to form. He had also received a severe blow on the back of the head and on both feet were large sloughs which may have been occasioned by exposure in frosty weather. He was in a very weak state.” After hearing the evidence of Dr Lumley as that given by the boy after his admission to the hospital and several other witnesses, the jury after a short consultation delivered the verdict “That the deceased came to his death through scrofulous inflammation of the hip joint, accelerated by the ill usage he received from his master, Charles Slaughter.”
Cornwall Chronicle  23 November 1859

ASSAULT.
Charles Slaughter was charged with assaulting Francis Burrowes on the 1st of July.
The particulars of this case have already been published in extense in this journal. It will be recollected that the boy Burrows was brought to the General Hospital from the Huon suffering, as was alleged, from injuries inflicted by the defendant his employer. Here he lingered till he died three weeks ago from a scrofulous malady accelerated, it was supposed, by the ill-treatment of the defendant.
Mr. Tarleton, Police Magistrate, stated that the defendant was brought before him on a charge of wilfully, maliciously, and unlawfully beating Francis Burrowes with a stick or staff. On that charge he was remanded from time to time in consequence of the inability of the boy to attend at the Police Office. On the 28th of October the boy ‘s deposition was taken at the Hospital in the presence of the prisoner and of his counsel, Mr. Lees.
The deposition was now read, as already published in our columns.
Other evidence having been adduced, Mr. Lees addressed the jury for the defence,
and
His Honor having summed up, the jury retired and after an absence of some hours returned into court with a verdict of acquittal.
The Hobart Town Daily Mercury, 7 December 1859.

SUPREME COURT. The Hobart Town criminal sittings commenced on Tuesday, when Charles Slaughter was indicted for assaulting Francis Burrows (a lad of color, who had since died in the hospital). After being absent about five hours, the jury returned into Court, and the foreman (Mr. Whitcomb) read the following verdict – Not guilty; at the same time the jury desire to express their condemnation of the practice of chastising boys in the manner adopted by the prisoner. The prisoner was then discharged, the Judge telling him he had had a very narrow escape, for many a man had been tried for his life on less evidence.
Launceston Examiner 8 December 1859

A black boy named Francis Burrows died in the hospital at Hobart Town, and the evidence adduced at the coroner’s inquest showed that death had been accelerated by ill-usage received from his master, a small farmer, residing on the Huon.
Launceston Examiner 10 December 1859

BURROWS, FRANCIS
Gender:  Male
Birth 1848
Death: 1859 – HOBART,Tasmania
Burrows, Francis

Age    11
Ship or Native Place
Death Date    13 Nov 1859
Inquest Date    16 Nov 1859
Verdict
AGD Reference
POL 709 Reference
SC 195 Reference    SC195/1/43 Inquest 4676

BURROWS, THOMAS
Birth By 1817 –    [AO]
Marriage/Relationship: 1847 – HOBART, Tasmania  ( JANE, MARY )  [AO]

AOT Departures.
Burrows Thomas  Seaman John Souchay 4 Oct 1850 Launceston Mauritius John Souchay   POL220/1/1 p278
Burrows Thomas  Seaman John Souchay 20 Apr 1851 Launceston Mauritius John Souchay   POL220/1/1 p357
Burrows Thomas  Crew Pilot 16 Jul 1852 Hobart Town Melbourne    CUS36/1/422
Burrows Thomas  Crew Glencoe 30 Oct 1852 Hobart Port Albert    CUS36/1/239

Slaughter, Charles

Convict No:    64595
Voyage Ship:    Mayda
Voyage No:    369
Arrival Date:    08 Jan 1846
Departure Date:    29 Aug 1845
Departure Port:    Woolwich
Conduct Record:    CON33/1/79
Indent:    CON17/1/2 p182
Remarks:    Off Norfolk Island per Pestongee Bomangee May 1847
Charles Slaughter, one of 199 convicts transported on the Mayda, 27 August 1845
Convicted at Sussex, Lewes Quarter Sessions for a term of 15 years.
Sentence term: 15 years
Ship name: Mayda
Departure date: 27th August, 1845
Place of arrival: Van Diemen’s Land

Ellen or Eleanor Lyons, b. 1826, Native place Waterford Ireland.
Ellen or Eleanor was convicted of arson at Wexford, 09 July 1850 and sent to Tasmania, Australia as a prisoner, arrived 29 May 1851.
She later married Charles Slaughter, also a convict and they had a daughter who became my great grandmother.
Is there any one who could assist in finding more about her family in Waterford, I would be a very grateful Genes Reunited member,here’s hoping, Evelyn
ELEANOR LYON Pedigree
Birth: 1826 , , Ireland
Parents:
Father: TENISON LYON Family
Mother: ELEANOR FRASER
Groom’s Name: Charles Slaughten
Groom’s Birth Date: 1822
Groom’s Birthplace:
Groom’s Age: 31
Bride’s Name: Ellen Lyons
Bride’s Birth Date: 1830
Bride’s Age: 23
Marriage Date: 07 Feb 1853
Marriage Place: Tasmania,Australia
Indexing Project (Batch) Number: M31046-7
System Origin: Australia-ODM
Source Film Number: 1368291
Australia Marriage Index, 1788-1949
Name: Charles Slaughter
Spouse Name: Ellen Lyons
Marriage Date: 07 Feb 1853
Marriage Place: Tasmania
Registration Place: Hobart, Tasmania
Registration Year: 1853
Registration Number: 944
Her 2nd marriage?

Australia Marriage Index, 1788-1949
Name: Ellen Slaughter
Spouse Name: Daniel Davis
Marriage Date: 19 Oct 1862
Marriage Place: Tasmania
Registration Place: Hobart, Tasmania
Registration Year: 1862
Registration Number: 326
Charles Slaughter died 1860 in Tasmania.

Index to Marriage Notices in The Mercury, 1854-1962
Name: Ellen Slaughter-Davis
Spouse Name: William Gentry Fisher
Marriage Date: 26 Mar 1883
Other Details: Anniversary
Gender: Female
Publication Date: 26 Mar 1908
I am back again to confirm Ellen did marry after the death of Charles Slaughter and it is the marriage, above to Daniel Davis in 1862. As well as that, there is another child, Charles Slaughter who was admitted to the Queens Orphan School as a 7 year old on Jan 6 1862. So far can’t find any other information as to what happened after that.
Evelyn
SLAUGHTER, CHARLES
Birth    1822 –
Marriage/Relationship:    1853 – HOBART,Tasmania  (LYONS, ELLEN Birth1830)

FAMILY INFORMATION
Children:
357321    SLAUGHTER F    1857
357322    SLAUGHTER ELLEN    1860

SLAUGHTER, CHARLES
Birth    1808 – ENGLAND
Marriage/Relationship:      ( ELLEN  )
Death:    1861 – HOBART,Tasmania

Database Number    Family Name    Given Names     See Surname    See Given Names    Date of Arrival    Ship Name    Date of Departure    Port of Departure    Remarks
43989    Lyons    Ellen                25 Feb 1847    Arabian    22 Nov 1846    Dublin
43991    Lyons    Ellen       Lyons    Eleanor    29 May 1851    Blackfriar    24 Jan 1851    Kingston
43992    Lyons    Ellen                                         22 May 1852    John William Dare    28 Dec 1851    Dublin
43990    Lyons    Ellen        Walsh    Ellen    20 Jan 1849    Lord Auckland (3)    11 Oct 1848    Dublin

Responses

  1. is there anybody who knows what happened to any of emue and/or john andersons children??

  2. Michael Burnes and Patience Gray lived for a short time in Malmsbury Victoria. In 1856, at Malmsbury, Michael Berne (sic) and his wife Patience Gray had twins named Thomas and Stephen. Thomas died the same year aged 5 weeks but I have found no trace of Stephen in Victoria after his birth. The same year (1856) Michael Burns is a juror at the inquest of a man found dead in the Coliban River in Malmsbury in August. Michael and Patience (as Patricia) appear to have left Launceston for Melbourne on the Vixen in Oct 1852. I have yet to find when they left Victoria.
    Sue Walter
    Malmsbury Historical Society

  3. Whoa! Where did Mary Patches get all that money?

  4. […] at Clarence Plains. Fielder arrived in Hobart at least a year earlier if the information in https://vdlworldimmigrants.wordpress.com/stories-of-immigrants-pre-1900 is correct.  “A newspaper notice by James Fielder of Howrah Farm, Clarence Plains, dated 17 […]


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